Nursing strategies for pressure injury prevention in surgical patients

Sandra Marina Gonçalves Bezerra, Jessyca Fernanda Pereira Brito, Jefferson Abraão Caetano Lira, Nanielle Silva Barbosa, Kauan Gustavo de Carvalho, Luana Silva de Sousa


Objective: To identify in the literature the strategies used by nursing teams to prevent pressure injury in surgical patients. Methods: Integrative review, using the PICo strategy, with the guiding question: “What are the strategies used by the nursing team to prevent pressure injury in surgical patients?” The searches were performed in the Web of Science, MEDLINE via PubMed, CINAHL, Cochrane, Scopus and LILACS bibliographic index via VHL, from where 12 studies were analyzed. Results: Brazil stood out with four publications and cohort studies, with level of evidence IV, prevailed in six articles. Technological interventions for the prevention of Pressure Injury in the operating room were pressure distribution mattresses, a device to reduce pressure on the calcaneus, specific validated instruments for the classification of the risk of Pressure Injury in surgical patients, in addition to support surfaces containing polymer viscoelastic and other tools to relieve pressure from weight and medical devices. Regarding educational interventions, protocols, training and realistic simulation stood out. Conclusion: It was observed that these strategies reduced the incidence of pressure injury, in addition to reducing costs and ensuring patient satisfaction.

Keywords


Perioperative period; Intraoperative period; Pressure ulcer; Patient positioning; Nursing; Enterostomal therapy

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